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SEMI PV31-0212 - Test Method for Spectrally Resolved Reflective and Transmissive Haze of Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) Films for PV Application

Volume(s): Photovoltaic
Language: English
Type: Single Standards Download (.pdf)
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This Standard was technically approved by the global Photovoltaic – Materials Technical Committee. This edition was approved for publication by the global Audits and Reviews Subcommittee on December 24, 2011. Available at www.semiviews.org and www.semi.org in February 2012.


Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films used in the photovoltaic industry are textured in order to optimize light absorption and maximize cell efficiency. Frequently, haze measurements are used to characterize such films. The required texture usually is not well defined by a single haze result because the relative amounts of low and high frequency roughness on the surface can both be important. Therefore the haze is frequently determined for a spectrum of source wavelengths. Then the haze values can often be correlated with useful properties of the material.


In the PV field, haze is taken as the total integrated reflective or transmissive scatter from the surface of the sample. The basics of this measurement are covered in SEMI MF1048.

Referenced SEMI Standards

SEMI M59 — Terminology for Silicon Technology

SEMI MF1048 — Test Method for Measuring Reflective Total Integrated Scatter

SEMI PV15 — Guide for Defining Conditions for Angle Resolved Light Scatter Measurements to Monitor the Surface Roughness and Texture of PV Materials

Revision History

SEMI PV31-0212 (first published)

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