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SEMI M1-0414 - Specification for Polished Single Crystal Silicon Wafers

Volume(s): Materials
Language: English
Type: Single Standards Download (.pdf)
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$300.00



Status
CURRENT - Supported by the technical committee.


Abstract

This Standard was technically approved by the Silicon Wafer Global Technical Committee. This edition was approved for publication by the global Audits and Reviews Subcommittee on December 23, 2013; available at www.semiviews.org and www.semi.org in April 2014. Originally published in 1978; previously published January 2014.

 

Single crystal silicon wafers are utilized for essentially all integrated circuits and many other semiconductor devices. To permit common processing equipment to be used in multiple device fabrication lines, it is essential for the wafer dimensions to be standardized.

 

In addition, as technology advances to smaller and smaller dimensions for the elements of high-density integrated circuits, it has become of interest to standardize additional properties of the wafers.

 

This Specification provides the essential dimensional and certain other common characteristics of silicon wafers, including polished wafers as well as substrates for epitaxial and certain other kinds of silicon wafers.

 

These specifications cover ordering information and certain requirements for high-purity (electronic grade), single crystal polished silicon wafers used in semiconductor device and integrated circuit manufacturing. Such wafers are usually sliced from cylindrical single-crystal ingots that have been ground to a uniform diameter prior to slicing. These specifications also cover ordering information and certain requirements for electronic grade silicon wafers intended for use as substrates (or starting wafers) for other kinds of wafers, including epitaxial, annealed, and SOI wafers.

 

Dimensional requirements are provided for the following categories of polished wafers:

  • Category 1.1 2 inch polished single crystal silicon wafers with secondary flat

  • Category 1.2 3 inch polished single crystal silicon wafers with secondary flat

  • Category 1.5 100 mm polished single crystal silicon wafers, 525 m m thick, with secondary flat

  • Category 1.6 100 mm polished single crystal silicon wafers, 625 m m thick, with secondary flat

  • Category 1.7 125 mm polished single crystal silicon wafers with secondary flat

  • Category 1.8.1 150 mm polished single crystal silicon wafers with secondary flat and T/3 edge profile template

  • Category 1.8.2 150 mm polished single crystal silicon wafers with secondary flat and T/4 edge profile template

  • Category 1.9.1 200 mm notched polished single crystal silicon wafers with T/3 edge profile template

  • Category 1.9.2 200 mm notched polished single crystal silicon wafers with T/4 edge profile template

  • Category 1.9.3 200 mm notched polished single crystal silicon wafers with parameter-specified edge profile

  • Category 1.10.1 200 mm flatted polished single crystal silicon wafers with T/3 edge profile template without secondary flat

  • Category 1.10.2 200 mm flatted polished single crystal silicon wafers with T/4 edge profile template without secondary flat

  • Category 1.11 100 mm flatted polished single crystal silicon wafers without secondary flat

  • Category 1.12 125 mm flatted polished single crystal silicon wafers without secondary flat

  • Category 1.13.1 150 mm flatted polished single crystal silicon wafers with T/3 edge profile template without secondary flat

  • Category 1.13.2 150 mm flatted polished single crystal silicon wafers with T/4 edge profile template without secondary flat

  • Category 1.15 300 mm notched polished single crystal silicon wafers with T/4 edge profile template

  • Category 1.15.1 300 mm notched polished single crystal silicon wafers with parameter-specified edge profile

Category 1.16.1 450 mm polished single crystal silicon wafers with notch centered on <110> axis

Category 1.16.2 450 mm polished single crystal silicon wafers with notch centered on <100> axis

 

Values given for thickness, total thickness variation (TTV), bow, and warp apply only to wafers prior to application of back surface films, extrinsic gettering treatments, or other thermal treatments.

 

The dimensional characteristics of Category 1.10.1, 1.10.2, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13.1, and 1.13.2 wafers specified in this document are identical with those specified in JEITA EM-3602, and the dimensional characteristics of Category 1.15 wafers are essentially equivalent with those specified in JEITA EM-3602.

 

A complete purchase specification requires that additional physical properties be specified along with test methods suitable for determining their magnitude. This Standard provides a comprehensive listing of such properties and associated test methods. This listing provides a systematic basis for constructing the purchase specification for any kind of polished silicon wafer or substrate and is expected to be used for such purposes.

 

These specifications apply specifically to prime silicon wafers with at least one chem-mechanically polished surface. Ground, lapped, and unpolished wafers are not covered in this Specification but this Specification may provide guidance in connection with their procurement.

 

This Standard also provides guides for the specification of 300 and 450 mm diameter prime silicon wafers for the 32, 22, and 16 nm technology generations. These are included in Related Information 1.

 

These specifications do not cover the requirements for the following related silicon materials and wafers:

  • Polycrystalline silicon (see SEMI M16 or JEITA EM-3601A),

  • Epitaxial wafers (see SEMI M62),

  • Epitaxial wafers with buried layer (see SEMI M61),

  • Test wafers (see SEMI M8),

  • Premium wafers (see SEMI M24),

  • Reclaimed wafers (see SEMI M38),

  • Annealed wafers (see SEMI M57),

  • SOI wafers (see SEMI M41, SEMI M71, or JEITA EM-3603B), and

  • Solar-grade silicon wafers (see SEMI PV22).

 

They do, however, provide the ordering information for test, premium, and reclaimed wafers, as well as the ordering information for the polished substrates and starting wafers used to prepare epitaxial, annealed, and SOI wafers.

 

For referee purposes, U.S. customary units shall be used for wafers of 2 inch and 3 inch nominal diameters, and SI (system international, commonly called metric) units for 100 mm and larger diameter wafers.


Referenced SEMI Standards

SEMI M6 — Specification for Silicon Wafers for Use as Photovoltaic Solar Cells

SEMI M8 — Specification for Polished Monocrystalline Silicon Test Wafers

SEMI M12 — Specification for Serial Alphanumeric Marking of the Front Surface of Wafers

SEMI M13 — Specification for Alphanumeric Marking of Silicon Wafers

SEMI M16 — Specification for Polycrystalline Silicon

SEMI M18 — Guide for Developing Specification Forms for Order Entry of Silicon Wafers

SEMI M20 — Practice for Establishing a Wafer Coordinate System

SEMI M24 — Specification for Polished Monocrystalline Silicon Premium Wafers

SEMI M26 — Guide for the Re-Use of 100, 125, 150, and 200 mm Wafer Shipping Boxes Used to Transport Wafers

SEMI M33 — Test Method for the Determination of Residual Surface Contamination on Silicon Wafers by Means of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF)

SEMI M35 — Guide for Developing Specifications for Silicon Wafer Surface Features Detected by Automated Inspection

SEMI M38 — Specification for Polished Reclaimed Silicon Wafers

SEMI M40 — Guide for Measurement of Roughness of Planar Surfaces on Silicon Wafers

SEMI M41 — Specification of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) for Power Device/ICs

SEMI M43 — Guide for Reporting Wafer Nanotopography

SEMI M44 — Guide to Conversion Factors for Interstitial Oxygen in Silicon

SEMI M45 — Specification for 300 mm Wafer Shipping System

SEMI M53 — Practice for Calibrating Scanning Surface Inspection Systems Using Certified Depositions of Monodisperse Reference Spheres on Unpatterned Semiconductor Wafer Surfaces

SEMI M57 — Guide for Specifying Silicon Annealed Wafers

SEMI M58 — Test Method for Evaluating DMA-Based Particle Deposition Systems and Processes

SEMI M59 — Terminology for Silicon Technology

SEMI M61 — Specification for Silicon Epitaxial Wafers with Buried Layers

SEMI M62 — Specifications for Silicon Epitaxial Wafers

SEMI M67 — Practice for Determining Wafer Near-Edge Geometry from a Measured Thickness Data Array Using the ESFQR, ESFQD and ESBIR Metrics

SEMI M68 — Practice for Determining Wafer Near-Edge Geometry from a Measured Height Data Array Using a Curvature Metric, ZDD

SEMI M70 — Practice for Determining Wafer-Near-Edge Geometry Using Partial Wafer Site Flatness

SEMI M71 — Specification for Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Wafers for CMOS LSI

SEMI M73 — Test Methods for Extracting Relevant Characteristics from Measured Wafer Edge Profiles

SEMI M77 — Practice for Determining Wafer Near-Edge Geometry Using Roll-off Amount, ROA

SEMI M78 — Guide for Determining Nanotopography of Unpatterned Silicon Wafers for the 130 nm to 22 nm Generations in High Volume Manufacturing

SEMI MF26 — Test Methods for Determining the Orientation of a Semiconductive Single Crystal

SEMI MF28 — Test Methods for Minority-Carrier Lifetime in Bulk Germanium and Silicon by Measurement of Photoconductive Decay

SEMI MF42 — Test Methods for Conductivity Type of Extrinsic Semiconducting Materials

SEMI MF81 — Test Method for Measuring Radial Resistivity Variation on Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF84 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon Wafers with an In-Line Four-Point Probe

SEMI MF391 — Test Methods for Minority Carrier Diffusion Length in Extrinsic Semiconductors by Measurement of Steady-State Surface Photovoltage

SEMI MF523 — Practice for Unaided Visual Inspection of Polished Silicon Wafer Surfaces

SEMI MF525 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon Wafers Using a Spreading Resistance Probe

SEMI MF533 — Test Method for Thickness and Thickness of Variation of Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF534 — Test Method for Bow of Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF657 —Test Method for Measuring Warp and Total Thickness Variation on Silicon Wafers by Noncontact Scanning

SEMI MF671 — Test Method for Measuring Flat Length on Wafers of Silicon and Other Electronic Materials

SEMI MF673 — Test Methods for Measuring Resistivity of Semiconductor Slices or Sheet Resistance of Semiconductor Films with a Noncontact Eddy-Current Gage

SEMI MF847 — Test Methods for Measuring Crystallographic Orientation of Flats on Single Crystal Silicon Wafers by X-Ray Techniques

SEMI MF928 — Test Methods for Edge Contour of Circular Semiconductor Wafers and Rigid Disk Substrates

SEMI MF951 — Test Method for Determination of Radial Interstitial Oxygen Variation in Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF978 — Test Method for Characterizing Semiconductor Deep Levels by Transient Capacitance Techniques

SEMI MF1048 — Test Method for Measuring Reflective Total Integrated Scatter

SEMI MF1049 — Practice for Shallow Etch Pit Detection on Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF1152 — Test Method for Dimensions of Notches on Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF1188 — Test Method for Interstitial Oxygen Content of Silicon by Infrared Absorption with Short Baseline

SEMI MF1239 — Test Method for Oxygen Precipitation Characteristics of Silicon Wafers by Measurement of Interstitial Oxygen Reduction

SEMI MF1366 — Test Method for Measuring Oxygen Concentration in Heavily Doped Silicon Substrates by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

SEMI MF1388 — Test Method for Generation Lifetime and Generation Velocity of Silicon Material by Capacitance-Time Measurements of Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS) Capacitors

SEMI MF1390 — Test Method for Measuring Warp on Silicon Wafers by Automated Non-contact Scanning

SEMI MF1391 — Test Method for Substitutional Atomic Carbon Content of Silicon by Infrared Absorption

SEMI MF1451 — Test Method for Measuring Sori on Silicon Wafers by Automated Non-contact Scanning

SEMI MF1528 — Test Method for Measuring Boron Contamination in Heavily Doped n-Type Silicon Substrates by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

SEMI MF1530 — Test Method for Measuring Flatness, Thickness, and Total Thickness Variation on Silicon Wafers by Automated Non-contact Scanning

SEMI MF1535 — Test Method for Carrier Recombination Lifetime in Silicon Wafers by Noncontact Measurement of Photoconductivity Decay by Microwave Reflectance

SEMI MF1617 — Test Method for Measuring Surface Sodium, Aluminum, Potassium, and Iron on Silicon and Epi Substrates by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

SEMI MF1619 — Test Method for Measurement of Interstitial Oxygen Content of Silicon Wafers by Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy with p-Polarized Radiation Incident at the Brewster Angle

SEMI MF1726 — Practice for Analysis of Crystallographic Perfection of Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF1727 — Practice for Detection of Oxidation Induced Defects in Polished Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF1809 — Guide for Selection and Use for Etching Solutions to Delineate Structural Defects in Silicon

SEMI MF1982 — Test Methods for Analyzing Organic Contaminants on Silicon Wafer Surfaces by Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography

SEMI MF2074 — Guide for Measuring Diameter of Silicon and Other Semiconductor Wafers

SEMI T3 — Specification for Wafer Box Labels

SEMI T7 — Specification for Back Surface Marking of Double-sided Polished Wafers with a Two-Dimensional Matrix Code Symbol


Revision History

SEMI M1-0414 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0114 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1013 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0413 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0812 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1111 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0611 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0211 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1109 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0309E (editorial revision)

SEMI M1-0309 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0707 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0307 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1106 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1105E (editorial revision)

SEMI M1-1105 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0305 (complete rewrite to include all subordinate documents)

SEMI M1-0704 (designation update)

SEMI M1-1103 (designation update)

SEMI M1-0302 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0701E (editorial revision)

SEMI M1-0701 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0600 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0200 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0699 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0298 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0997 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1296 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-96 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-95 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-94 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-93 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-92 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-89 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-85 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-78 (first published)


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