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SEMI M1-0413 - Specification for Polished Single Crystal Silicon Wafers

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Language: English
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This Standard was technically approved by the Silicon Wafer Global Technical Committee. This edition was approved for publication by the global Audits and Reviews Subcommittee on December 20, 2012. Available at www.semiviews.org and www.semi.org in April 2013; originally published in 1978; previously published August 2012.


Single crystal silicon wafers are utilized for essentially all integrated circuits and many other semiconductor devices. To permit common processing equipment to be used in multiple device fabrication lines, it is essential for the wafer dimensions to be standardized.

In addition, as technology advances to smaller and smaller dimensions for the elements of high-density integrated circuits, it has become of interest to standardize additional properties of the wafers.

This Specification provides the essential dimensional and certain other common characteristics of silicon wafers, including polished wafers as well as substrates for epitaxial and certain other kinds of silicon wafers.

These specifications cover ordering information and certain requirements for high-purity (electronic grade), single crystal polished silicon wafers used in semiconductor device and integrated circuit manufacturing. Such wafers are usually sliced from cylindrical single-crystal ingots that have been ground to a uniform diameter prior to slicing. These specifications also cover ordering information and certain requirements for electronic grade silicon wafers intended for use as substrates (or starting wafers) for other kinds of wafers, including epitaxial, annealed, and SOI wafers.

Referenced SEMI Standards

SEMI M6 — Specification for Silicon Wafers for Use as Photovoltaic Solar Cells

SEMI M8 — Specification for Polished Monocrystalline Silicon Test Wafers

SEMI M12 — Specification for Serial Alphanumeric Marking of the Front Surface of Wafers

SEMI M13 — Specification for Alphanumeric Marking of Silicon Wafers

SEMI M16 — Specification for Polycrystalline Silicon

SEMI M18 — Guide for Developing Specification Forms for Order Entry of Silicon Wafers

SEMI M20 — Practice for Establishing a Wafer Coordinate System

SEMI M24 — Specification for Polished Monocrystalline Silicon Premium Wafers

SEMI M26 — Guide for the Re-Use of 100, 125, 150, and 200 mm Wafer Shipping Boxes Used to Transport Wafers

SEMI M33 — Test Method for the Determination of Residual Surface Contamination on Silicon Wafers by Means of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF)

SEMI M35 — Guide for Developing Specifications for Silicon Wafer Surface Features Detected by Automated Inspection

SEMI M38 — Specification for Polished Reclaimed Silicon Wafers

SEMI M40 — Guide for Measurement of Roughness of Planar Surfaces on Silicon Wafers

SEMI M41 — Specification of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) for Power Device/ICs

SEMI M43 — Guide for Reporting Wafer Nanotopography

SEMI M44 — Guide to Conversion Factors for Interstitial Oxygen in Silicon

SEMI M45 — Specification for 300 mm Wafer Shipping System

SEMI M53 — Practice for Calibrating Scanning Surface Inspection Systems Using Certified Depositions of Monodisperse Reference Spheres on Unpatterned Semiconductor Wafer Surfaces

SEMI M57 — Guide for Specifying Silicon Annealed Wafers

SEMI M58 — Test Method for Evaluating DMA-Based Particle Deposition Systems and Processes

SEMI M59 — Terminology for Silicon Technology

SEMI M61 — Specification for Silicon Epitaxial Wafers with Buried Layers

SEMI M62 — Specifications for Silicon Epitaxial Wafers

SEMI M67 — Practice for Determining Wafer Near-Edge Geometry from a Measured Thickness Data Array Using the ESFQR, ESFQD and ESBIR Metrics

SEMI M68 — Practice for Determining Wafer Near-Edge Geometry from a Measured Height Data Array Using a Curvature Metric, ZDD

SEMI M70 — Practice for Determining Wafer-Near-Edge Geometry Using Partial Wafer Site Flatness

SEMI M71 — Specification for Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Wafers for CMOS LSI

SEMI M73 — Test Methods for Extracting Relevant Characteristics from Measured Wafer Edge Profiles

SEMI M77 — Practice for Determining Wafer Near-Edge Geometry Using Roll-off Amount, ROA

SEMI MF26 — Test Methods for Determining the Orientation of a Semiconductive Single Crystal

SEMI MF28 — Test Methods for Minority-Carrier Lifetime in Bulk Germanium and Silicon by Measurement of Photoconductive Decay

SEMI MF42 — Test Methods for Conductivity Type of Extrinsic Semiconducting Materials

SEMI MF81 — Test Method for Measuring Radial Resistivity Variation on Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF84 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon Wafers with an In-Line Four-Point Probe

SEMI MF391 — Test Methods for Minority Carrier Diffusion Length in Extrinsic Semiconductors by Measurement of Steady-State Surface Photovoltage

SEMI MF523 — Practice for Unaided Visual Inspection of Polished Silicon Wafer Surfaces

SEMI MF525 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon Wafers Using a Spreading Resistance Probe

SEMI MF533 — Test Method for Thickness and Thickness of Variation of Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF534 — Test Method for Bow of Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF657 —Test Method for Measuring Warp and Total Thickness Variation on Silicon Wafers by Noncontact Scanning

SEMI MF671 — Test Method for Measuring Flat Length on Wafers of Silicon and Other Electronic Materials

SEMI MF673 — Test Methods for Measuring Resistivity of Semiconductor Slices or Sheet Resistance of Semiconductor Films with a Noncontact Eddy-Current Gage

SEMI MF847 — Test Methods for Measuring Crystallographic Orientation of Flats on Single Crystal Silicon Wafers by X-Ray Techniques

SEMI MF928 — Test Methods for Edge Contour of Circular Semiconductor Wafers and Rigid Disk Substrates

SEMI MF951 — Test Method for Determination of Radial Interstitial Oxygen Variation in Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF978 — Test Method for Characterizing Semiconductor Deep Levels by Transient Capacitance Techniques

SEMI MF1048 — Test Method for Measuring Reflective Total Integrated Scatter

SEMI MF1049 — Practice for Shallow Etch Pit Detection on Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF1152 — Test Method for Dimensions of Notches on Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF1188 — Test Method for Interstitial Oxygen Content of Silicon by Infrared Absorption with Short Baseline

SEMI MF1239 — Test Method for Oxygen Precipitation Characteristics of Silicon Wafers by Measurement of Interstitial Oxygen Reduction

SEMI MF1366 — Test Method for Measuring Oxygen Concentration in Heavily Doped Silicon Substrates by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

SEMI MF1388 — Test Method for Generation Lifetime and Generation Velocity of Silicon Material by Capacitance-Time Measurements of Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS) Capacitors

SEMI MF1390 — Test Method for Measuring Warp on Silicon Wafers by Automated Non-contact Scanning

SEMI MF1391 — Test Method for Substitutional Atomic Carbon Content of Silicon by Infrared Absorption

SEMI MF1451 — Test Method for Measuring Sori on Silicon Wafers by Automated Non-contact Scanning

SEMI MF1528 — Test Method for Measuring Boron Contamination in Heavily Doped n-Type Silicon Substrates by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

SEMI MF1530 — Test Method for Measuring Flatness, Thickness, and Total Thickness Variation on Silicon Wafers by Automated Non-contact Scanning

SEMI MF1535 — Test Method for Carrier Recombination Lifetime in Silicon Wafers by Noncontact Measurement of Photoconductivity Decay by Microwave Reflectance

SEMI MF1617 — Test Method for Measuring Surface Sodium, Aluminum, Potassium, and Iron on Silicon and Epi Substrates by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

SEMI MF1619 — Test Method for Measurement of Interstitial Oxygen Content of Silicon Wafers by Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy with p-Polarized Radiation Incident at the Brewster Angle

SEMI MF1726 — Practice for Analysis of Crystallographic Perfection of Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF1727 — Practice for Detection of Oxidation Induced Defects in Polished Silicon Wafers

SEMI MF1809 — Guide for Selection and Use for Etching Solutions to Delineate Structural Defects in Silicon

SEMI MF1982 — Test Methods for Analyzing Organic Contaminants on Silicon Wafer Surfaces by Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography

SEMI MF2074 — Guide for Measuring Diameter of Silicon and Other Semiconductor Wafers

SEMI T3 — Specification for Wafer Box Labels

SEMI T7 — Specification for Back Surface Marking of Double-sided Polished Wafers with a Two-Dimensional Matrix Code Symbol

Revision History

SEMI M1-0413 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0812 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1111 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0611 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0211 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1109 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0309E (editorial revision)

SEMI M1-0309 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0707 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0307 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1106 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1105E (editorial revision)

SEMI M1-1105 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0305 (complete rewrite to include all subordinate documents)

SEMI M1-0704 (designation update)

SEMI M1-1103 (designation update)

SEMI M1-0302 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0701E (editorial revision)

SEMI M1-0701 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0600 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0200 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0699 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0298 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-0997 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-1296 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-96 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-95 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-94 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-93 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-92 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-89 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-85 (technical revision)

SEMI M1-78 (first published)

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